SHORT-LIVED ZAND DYNASTY 381 Ibrahim, son of Haji Hashim, a magistrate of Shiraz. He had rendered good service to Jafar by securing the adhesion of his native city when the Zand chief had fled from Isfahan, and had been rewarded by appointment as Kalantar1 of Pars, a position which is still held by his family. Upon the assassination of Jafar, Haji Ibrahim won over the Shirazis to the side of Lutf Ali, who consequently owed to him his throne. Lutf Ali was noted before his accession for kindness of heart and generosity, and these qualities, combined with his unrivalled skill as a leader and man-at-arms, caused him to be beloved by all; but upon securing the throne he became imperious and overbearing. During his absence in Kerman many charges had been made against Haji Ibrahim, who was a strong and astute personality somewhat after the type of Bismarck, and whose services to his master were dangerous by reason of their magnitude. The case which convinced him that it would be imprudent to continue te~ serve Lutf Ali was that of a certain Mirza Mehdi, 'an army accountant who had been convicted of embezzlement by Jafar and sentenced to lose his ears. When Jafar had been assassinated his head was cut off and thrown frorri^the citadel, and it was alleged against Mirza Mehdi that he" had avenged himself by cutting off the ears from his master's head. Haji Ibrahim, affirming that he did not believe the report, had persuaded Lutf Ali to pardon the man, and even to bestow upon him a robe of honour. Jafar's widow reproached her son for this treatment of a man guilty of so great an insult to the dead Jafar, and thereupon Lutf Ali, in a hasty moment, con- demned him to be flung into a fire. Haji Ibrahim himself informed Malcolm that this was the reason for his deser- tion of Lutf Ali; but it is more probable that his treachery had a personal motive, in the desire to be dissociated from a losing cause. His Successful Plot.—In A.H. 1205 (1791) Lutf Ali marched north to meet the army of Aga Mohamed, and Haji Ibrahim took advantage of his absence from Shiraz 1 Kaianttr signifies Chief Civil Magistrate. The Kawam-itl-Mulk is the title now borne by the head of the family. In a poem by Hafiz reference i* made to Haji Kawam- u-Dia and the late Kovoam-i&Mdk quoted the verse to me and stated that it referred to his ancestor. This, however, is denied in some quarters.